参考文献

参考文献《第1章》
  1. L. C. Wood, D. S. Cooper, and E. C. Ridgway. Your Thyroid, A Home Reference. 3rd ed. (New York: Ballantine Books, 1995), 215-219.
  2. R. Arem and D. Escalante, “Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Significance, ” Advances in Internal Medicine 41 (1996): 213-50.
  3. S. I. Sherman, P. Nadkarni, and R. Arem, “Outcomes of a Community TSH Screening Program” (abstract presented at the Seventy-ninth Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Minneapolis, June 11, 1997).
  4. L. Wartofsky, “The Scope and Impact of Thyroid Disease,” Clinical Chemistry 42, no. 1 (1996): 121-24.
  5. R. J. Graves, “Newly Observed Affection of the Thyroid Gland in Females,” Lodon Medical Surgical Journal 7, part 2 (1835): 516.
  6. Collections from the unpublished writings of the late C. H. Parry, London, Under-woods, 1825.
  7. W. W. Gull, “On a Cretinoid State Supervening in Adult Life in Women,” Transitional Clinical Society (London) 7 (1873): 180-85.
  8. G. Lewis and S. Wessely, “The Epidemiology of Fatigue: More Questions Than Answers, ” Journal of Epidemiology and Commanity Health 46 (1992): 92-97.
  9. D. B. Kamerow, “Anxiety and Depression in the Medical Setting: An Overview,” Medical Clinics of North America 72 (1988): 745-51.
  10. R. C. Kessler, K. A. McGonagle, S. Zhao, et al., “Lifetime and Twelve-Month Prevalence of DSM-III-R Psychiatric Disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Study,” Archives of General Psychiatry 51 (1994): 8-19.
  11. D. A. Regier, R. M. A. Hirschfeld, F. K. Goodwin, et al., “The NIMH Depression Awareness, Recognition, and Treatment Program: Structure, Aims, and Scientific Basis,” American Journal of Psychiatry 145 (1988): 1351-57.
  12. K. B. Wells, R. D. Hays, M. A. Burnham, et al., “Detection of Depressive Disorders for Patients Receiving Prepaid or Free-for-Service Care: Results from the Medical Out-comes Study, ” Journal of the American Medical Association 262 (1989): 3298-3302.
  13. W. Katon, M, Von Korff, E. Lin, et al., “Adequacy and Duration of Antidepressant Treatment in Primary Care,” Medical Care 30 (1992): 67-76.
  14. V. M. Victoioff, S. J. Mantel, A. Bailetti, et al., “Physical Examinations in Psychiatric Practice,” Ohlo Hospital Comuabsion of Psychlatry 30 (1979): 536-4O.
  15. R. G. Kathol and J. W. Delahunt, “The Relationship of Anxiety and Depression to Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism Using Operational Criteria,” General Hospital Psychiatry 8 (1986): 23-28.
  16. B. A. Bartman and K. B. Weiss, “Women’s Primary Care in the United States: A Study of Practice Variation among Physician Specialties,” Journal of Women’s Health 2, no. 3 (1993): 26l-l8.
  17. L. Laurence and B. Weinhouse, Outrageous Practices.’ The Alarmiflg Truth about How Medlcine Mistreats Women (New York: Random House, 1994), 259-61.
参考文献《第2章》
  1. J. K. Levey, K. E. Bell, B. L. Lachar, et al., “Psychoneuroimmunology,” in Neuroimmunology for the Cliniclan edited by Loren A Rolak and Yadollah Harati, 35-55 (Newton, Mass.: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1997).
  2. D. N. Khansari, A. J. Murgo, and R. E. Faith, “Effects of Stress on the Immune System,” Immunology Today 11 (1990): 170-75.
  3. J. K. Kiecolt-Glaser, W. B. Malarkey, and M. Chee, “Negative Behavior during Marital Conflict Is Associated with Immunological Down-Regulation,” Psychosomatic Medicine 55 (1993): 395-409.
  4. S. Cohen, A. J. Tyrell, and A. P. Smith, “Psychological Stress and Susceptibility to the Common Cold,” New England Journal of Medicine 325 (1991): 606-12.
  5. G. Philippou and A. M. McGregor, “The Aetiology of Graves’ Disease: What Is the Genetic Contribution? ” Clinical Endocrinology 48 (1998): 393-95.
  6. D. A. de Luis, C. Varela, H. de la Calle, et al., “Helicobacter pylori Infection Is Markedly Increased in Patients with Autoimmune Atrophic Thyroiditis,” Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology 26, no. 4 (1998): 259-63.
  7. Collections from the writings of the late C. H. Parry, London, Underwoods, 1825.
  8. V. R. Radosavljevic, S. M. Jankovic, and J. M. Marinkovic, “Stressful Life Events in the Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease,” European Journal of Endocrinology 134 (1996): 699-701.
  9. K. Yoshiuchi, H. Kumano, S. Nomura, et al., “Stressful Life Events and Smoking Were Associated with Graves’ Disease in Women, but Not in Men,” Psychosomatic Medicine 60 (1998): 182-85.
  10. B. Harris, S. Othman, J. A. Davies, et al., “Association between Postpartum Thyroid Dysfunction and Thyroid Antibodies and Depression,” British Medical Journal 305, no. 6846 (1992): 152-56.
  11. J. J. Haggerty, K. L. Evans, R. N. Golden, et al., “The Presence of Antithyroid Antibodies in Patients with Affective and Non-affective Psychiatric Disorders,” Biological Psychlatry 27 (1990): 51-60.
  12. K. C. Hyams, F. S. Wignall, and R. Roswell, “War Syndromes and Their Evaluation From the U.S. Civil War to the Persian Gulf War,” Annals of Internal Medicine 125 (1996): 398-405.
  13. S. Wang, “Traumatic Stress and Attachment,” Acta Physiologica Scandinavica 161, suppl. 640 (1997): 164-69.
  14. H Brooks “Hyperthyroidism in the Recruit ” American Journal of Medical Science 156 (1918): 726-33.
  15. R. Grelland, “Thyrotoxicosis at Ulleval Hospital in the Years 1934-44 with a Special View of Frequency of the Disease,” Acta Medlca Scandinavica 125 (1946): 108-38.
  16. Abigail Trafford, “Me, Bush, and Graves’ Disease: Many Thyroid Patients Face an Emotional Roller Coaster,” The Washington Post, May 26, 1991, p. D1.
  17. S. A. Ebner, M-C. Badonnel, L. K. Altman, et al., “Conjugal Graves’ Disease,” Annals of Internal Medicine 116 (1992): 479-81.
  18. J. B. Jaspan, H. Luo, B. Ahmed, et al., “Evidence for a Retroviral Trigger in Graves’ Disease,” Autoimmumly 20 (1995): 135J,2.
  19. A. Fukao, M. Ito, and S. Hayashi, “The Effect of Psychological Factors on the Prognosis of Antithyroid Drug-Related Graves’ Disease Patients” (abstract), Thyroid 5, suppl. I (1995): S-244.
  20. H. M. Voth, P, S, Holzman, J. B. Katz, et al., “Thyroid ‘Hot Spots’: Their Relationship to Life Stress,” Psychosomatic Medicine 32 (1970): 561-68.
  21. E. Moschowitz, “The Nature of Graves’ Disease,” Archives of Internal Medicihe 46 (1930): 610-29.
  22. D. R. Brown, Y. Wang, and A. Ward, “Chronic Psychological Effects of Exercise and Exercise Plus Cognitive Strategies, ” Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27, no. 5 (1995): 765-75.
参考文献《第3章》
  1. F. F. Cartwright, Disease and History (New York: Dorset Press, 1972), 105-106.
  2. H. F. Stoll, “Chronic Invalidism with Marked Personality Changes Due to Myxedema,” Annals of Internal Medicine 6 (1932): 806.
  3. W. M. Easson and T. Kay, “Myxedema with Psychosis,” Archives of General Psychlatry 14 (1966): 277-83.
  4. R. Asher, “Myxedematous Madness,” British Medical Journal 2 (1949): 555-l2.
  5. I. Klein and K. Ojamaa, “Thyroid Hormone and Blood Pressure Regulation,” in Hypertenslon: Pathophysiology, Dlagnosis and Management. 2d ed., edited by J. H. Laragh and B. M. Brenner, 2247-62 (New York: Raven Press, 1995).
  6. J. J. Series, E. M. Biggart, D. St. J. O’Reilly, et al., “Thyroid Dysfunction and Hypercholesterolaemia in the General Population of Glasgow, Scotland,” Cli,u~a Chimica Acta 172 (1988): 217-22.
  7. E. Beghi, M. Delodovici, G. Boglium, et al., “Hypothyroidism and Polyneuropathy,” Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 52 (1989): 1420-23.
  8. M. A. Laylock and R. Pascuzzi, “The Neuromuscular Effects of Hypothyroidism,” Semiuars in Neurology 11, no. 3 (1991): 288-94.
  9. R. Arem and D. Escalante, “Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Significance, ” Advances in Internal Medicine 41(1996): 213-50.
  10. W.M.G. Tunbridge, M. Brewis, J. M. French, et al., “Natural History of Autoimmune Thyroiditis,” British Medical Journal 282 (1981): 258-62.
  11. D. Brown and D. Hoffman, “Russian Government Continues to Hide Details of Yeltsin’s Medical Problems,” Washi,egton Post 1 16, no. 5 (February 20, 1996), 3.
  12. Cable News Network, heart specialist: “Yeltsin didn’t look sick,” September 26, 1996.
  13. Cable News Network: “Yeltsin’s health problems cloud Russia’s future. More than heart disease may be involved,” September 21, 1996.
  14. R. Arem and W. Patsch, “Lipoprotein and Apolipoprotein Levels in Subclinical Hypothyroidism,” Archl~es of Internal Medici,re 150 (1990): 2097-2 100.
  15. R. Fierro-Benitez, R. Casar, J. B. Stanburly, et al., “Long-Term Effects of Correction of Iodine Deficiency on Psychomotor and Intellectual Development,” in Proceedings of the Ftfth Meeting of the PAHO/WHO Technical Group on Eedemic Goiter, Cretinism. and lodine Deficiency, edited by J. T. Dunn et al. (Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization, 1986).
  16. E. Nystrom, K. Caidahl, G. Fager, et al., “A Double-Blind Cross-over 12-Month Study of L-Thyroxine Treatment of Women with ‘Subclinical’ Hypothyroidism,” Clincal Endocrinology 29 (1988): 63-76.
  17. J. J. Haggerty, J. C. Garbutt, D. L. Evans, et al., “Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Review of Neuropsychiatric Aspects,” International Journal of Psychlatry in Medicine 20, no. 2 (1990): 193-208.
  18. F. Monzani, P. Del Guerra, N. Caraccio, et al., “Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Neurobehavioral Features and Beneficial Effect of L-Thyroxine Treatment,” Clinical Investigator 71 (1993): 367-71.
  19. J. V. Felicetta, “Thyroid Changes with Aging: Significance and Management,” Geriatrics 42 (1987): 86-92.
  20. M. Bahemuka and H. M. Hodkinson, “Screening for Hypothyroidism in Elderly Inpatients,” British Medical Journal 2 (1975): 601-3.
  21. D. L. Ewins, M. N. Rossot, J. Butler, et al., “Association between Autoimmune Thyroid Disease and Familial Alzheimer’s Disease, ” Clinical Endocrinology 35 (1991): 93-96.
  22. C. T. Sawin, D. Chopra, F. Azizi, et al., “The Aging Thyroid: Increased Prevalence of Elevated Serum Thyrotropin in the Elderly,” Journal of the American Medical Association 242 (1979): 247-50.
  23. F. Delange, “Neonatal Screening for Congenital Hypothyroidism: Results and Perspectives,” Hormone Research 48 (1997): 51-61.
  24. M. A. Jabbar, J. Larrea, and R. A. Shaw, “Abnormal Thyroid Function Tests in Infants with Congenital Hypothyroidism: The Influence of Soy-Based Formula,” Journal of the American College of Nutrition 16, no. 3 (1997): 280-82.
  25. H. E. Roberts, C. A. Moore, P. M. Fernhoff, et al., “Population Study of Congenital Hypothyroidism and Associated Birth Defects, Atlanta, 1979-1992,” American Journal of Medical Genetics 71 (1997): 29-32.
  26. P. J. Leedman, “Thyroid Disease and Hearing Disorders: New Genetic Links,” European Journal of Endocrinology 135 (1996): 394-95.
  27. T. Hua, “A Test That Failed: No System… Is Going to Pick Up Every Case,” Los Angeles Times (Orange County), July 7, 1997, sec. B, 1-2.
参考文献《第4章》
  1. H. F. Dunlap and F. P. Moersch, “Psychic Manifestations Associated with Hyperthyroidism,” American Journal of Psychiatry 91 (1935): 1215-38.
  2. M. Gomberg-Maitland and W. H. Frishman, “Thyroid Hormone and Cardiovascular Disease,” American Heart Journal 135 (1998): 187-96.
  3. S. Nagasaka, H. Sugimoto, T. Nakamura, et al., “Antithyroid Therapy Improves Bony Manifestations and Bone Meiabolic Markers in Patients with Graves’ Thyrotoxicosis,” Clinical Endocrinology 47, no. 2 (1997): 215-21.
  4. C. Giani, P. Fierabracci, R. Bonacci, et al., “Relationship between Breast Cancer and Thyroid Disease: Relevance of Autoimmune Thyroid Disorders in Breast Malignancy,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81 (1996): 990-94.
  5. P-T. Trzepacz, I. Klein, M. Roberts, et al., “Graves’ Disease: An Analysis of Thyroid Hormone Levels and Hyperthyroid Signs and Symptoms,” American Journal of Medicine 87, no. 5 (1989): 558-61.
  6. V. I. Reus, “Behavioral Aspects of Thyroid Disease in Women,” Psychlatric Clinics of North America 12, no. I (1989): 153-63.
  7. R. C. W. Hall, “Psychiatric Effects of Thyroid Hormone Disturbance,” Psychosomatics 24, no. I (1983): 7-18.
  8. P. H. Rockey and R. J. Griep, “Behavioral Dysfunction in Hyperthyroidism: Improvement with Treatment,” Archives of Internal Medicine 140 (1980): 1194-97.
  9. D. G. Folks and W. M. Petrie, “Thyrotoxicosis Presenting as Depression,” Ietter to the British Journal of Psychiatry 140 (1982): 432-33.
  10. J. W. Taylor, “Depression in Thyrotoxicosis,” American Journal of Psychiatry 132, no. 5 (1975): 552-53.
  11. P. F. Giannandrea, “The Depressed Hyperthyroid Patient,” General Hospital Psychlatry 9 (1987): 71-74.
  12. B. Schlote, B. Nowotny, L. Schaaf, et al., “Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: Physical and Mental State of Patients,” European Archives of Psychlatry aed Clinical Neuroscience 241 (1992): 357-64.
  13. B. Uzzan, J. Campos, M. Cucherat, et al., “Effects on Bone Mass of Long-Term Treatment with Thyroid Hormones: A Meta-analysis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81 (1996): 4278-89.
  14. B. Biondi, S. Fazio, A. Cuocola, et al., “Impaired Cardiac Reserve and Exercise Capacity in Patients Receiving Long-Term Thyrotropin Suppressive Therapy with Levothyroxine,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81 (1996): 4224-29.
  15. W. M. G. Tunbridge, D. C. Evered, R. Hall, et al., “The Spectrum of Thyroid Disease in a Community: The Whickham Survey,” Clinical Endocrinology 7 (1977): 481-93.
  16. C. Trivalle, J. Doucet, P. Chassagne, et al., “Differences in the Signs and Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism in Older and Younger Patients,” Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 44 (1996): 50-53.
  17. F. I. R. Martin and D. R. Deam, “Hyperthyroidism in Elderly Hospitalized Patients: Clinical Features and Treatment Outcomes,” Medical Journal of Australia 164 (1996): 200-3.
  18. E. C. Bartels and J. W. Kingsley Jr., “Hyperthyroidism in Patients over Sixty,” Geriatrics 4 (1949): 333-40.
  19. R. A. Nordyke, F. I. Gilbert, and A.S.M. Harada, “Graves’ Disease: Infiuence of Age on Clinical Findings,” Archives of Internal Medicine 148 (1988): 626-31.
参考文献《第5章》
  1. F. Monzani, P. Del Guerra, N. Caraccio, et al., “Subclinical Hypothyroidism: Neurobehavioral Features and Beneficial Effect of L-Thyroxine Treatment,” Clinical lnvestigator7l (1993): 367-7l.
  2. J. Scherer, “The Prevalence of Goiter in Psychiatric Outpatients Suffering from Affective Disorders,” letter to the Ameriean Journal of Psycbiaty 15 l (1994): 453.
  3. M. B. Dratman and J. T. Cordon, “Thyroid Hormones as Neurotransmitters,” Thyroid 6, no. 6 (1996): 639-47.
  4. C. Kirkegaard and J. Faber, “The Role of Thyroid Hormone in Depression,” European Journal of Endocrinology 138 (1998): 1-9.
  5. G. A. Mason, C. H. Walker, and A. J. Prange Jr., “L-Triiodothyronine: Is this Peripheral Hormone a Central Neurotransmitter?” Neuropsychopharmacology 8 (1993): 253-57.
  6. P. C. Whybrow and A. J. Prange Jr., “A Hypothesis of Thyroid-Catecholamine-Receptor Interaction: Its Relevance to Affective Illness,” Archives of General Psychiatry 38 (1981): 106-13.
  7. J. M. Gorman, The New Psychiatry (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996).
  8. J. Morrison, “DSM-IV Made Easy,” The Clinician’s Guide to Diagnosis (New York: Guilford Press, 1995).
  9. M. S. Gold, A. L. C. Pottash, and I. Extein, “Symptomless, Autoimmune Tbyroiditis in Depression,” Psychiatry Research 6 (1982): 26l-69.
  10. C. B. Nemeroff, J. S. Simon, J. J. Haggerty, et a1., “Antithyroid Antibodies in Depressed Patients, ” Ameriam Journal of Psychiatry, 142 (1985):840-43.
  11. J. J. Haggerty, A. A. Stern, G. A. Mason, et a1., “Subclinical Hypothyroidism: A Modifiable Risk Factor for Depression?” American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, no. 3 (1993): 508-10.
  12. C. Kirkegaard and J. Faber, “The Role of Thyroid Hormones in Depression.” 1-9.
  13. K. D. Denicoff, R. T. Joffe, M. C. Lakshmanan, et a1., “Neuropsychiatric Manifestations of Altered Thyroid State,” American Joumal of Psychiatry,147, no 1 (1990): 94-99.
  14. A. H. Howland, “Thyroid Dysfunction in Refractory Depression: Implications for Pathophysiology and Treatment,” Joumal of Clinical Psychiatry 54, no 2 (1993): 47-54.
  15. D. Elfenbein, ed., Living with Prozac and Other Selective Serotonin-Reuptake lnhibitors: Personal Accounts of Life on Antidepressants (New York: Harper Collins, 1995).
  16. P. J. Goodnick, I. L. Extein, and M. S. Gold, “TRH Test in the Treatment of Depression, ” Proceedings of the 143d Annual Meeting of the American Psychiatric Association, San Francisco, May 6-11, 1989, New Research Abstracts, 126.
  17. R. C. Kessler, K. A. McGonagle, S. Zhao, et a1., “Lifetime and 12-Month Prevalence of DSM-III-R Psychiatric Disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Study, ” Archives of General Psychiatry 51 (1994): 8-19.
  18. Kessler et al., “Prevelance of DSM-Ill-R Psychiatric Disorders,” 8-19.
  19. C. 9. Lindemann, C. M. Zitrin, and D. Klein, “Thyroid Dysfuncti.n in Phobic PatIents, ” Psychosomatics 25 (1984): 603-6.
  20. S. Matsubayashi, H. Tamai, Y. Matsumoto, et a1. “Graves, Disease after the Onset of Panic Disorder, ” Psychotherapy and Psyhosomatics 65 (1996):277-8O.
  21. M. E. Lickey and B. Cordon, Medicine and Mental Illness: The Use of Drug in Psychiairy (New York: Freeman, 1991).
  22. J. M. Gorman, The New Psychiatry, 212.
  23. R. W. Cowdry, T. A. Wehr, A. P. Zis, et a1., “Thyroid Abnormalities Associated with Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Illness, ” Archives of General Psychiatry 40 (1983): 414-20; and M. Kusalic, “Grade II and Grade III Hypothyroidism in Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Patients,” Neuropsychobiology 25 (1992): 177-81.
  24. H. A. P. C. Oomen, A. J. M. Schipperijn, and H. A. Drexhage, “The Prevalence of Affective Disorder and in Particular of a Rapid Cycling of Bipolar Disorder in Patients with Abnormal Thyroid Function Tests”,Clinical Endocrinology 45 (1996) : 215-23.
参考文献《第6章》
  1. G. R Murray, “Note on the Treatment of Myxocdema by Hypodermic Injections of an Extract of the Thyroid Gland of a Sheep,” Britl~h Medicdl Journal 2 (1891): 796-97.
  2. S. C. Kaufinan, G. P. Gross, and G. L. Kennedy, “Thyroid Hormone Use: Trends in the United States from 1960 through 1988,” Thyroid 1 (1991): 285-91.
  3. R. T, Joffe, S. T. H, SokoIov, and W. Singer, “Thyroid Hormone Treatment of Depression,” Thyroid 5, no. 3 (1995): 235-39.
  4. A. Baumgartner, M. Eravci, G. Pinna, e.t al., “Thyroid Homrone Metabolism in the Rat Brain in an Animal Model of ‘Behavioral Dependence’ on Ethanol,” Neuroscience Letters 227 (1997): 25-28.
  5. P. Hauser, A. J. Zametkin, P. Martinez, et al., “Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder in People with Generalized Resistance to Thyroid Hormone,” New England Jourual of Medicine 328 no. 14 (1993): 997-1001.
  6. T. Takeda, S. Suzuki, R-T. Liu, et al., “Triiodothyroacetic Acid Has Unique Potential for Therapy of Resistance to Thyroid Hormone,” Jourual of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, no. 7 (1995): 2033-40.
  7. B. Rozanov and M. B. Dratman, “Immunohistochemical Mapping of Brain Triiodothyronine Reveals Prominent Localization in Ventral Noradrenergic Systems,” Neuroscience 74 no. 3 (1996): 897-915.
  8. J. A. Hatterer, J. Herbert, C. Hidaka, et al., “Transthyretin in Patients with Depression,” Amerlean Jourual of Piychlatry 150 (1993): 813-15.
  9. C. Kirkegaard and J. Faber, “The Role of Thyroid Hormones in Depression,” European Jourual of Endocrinology 138 (1998): 1-9.
  10. S. T. H. Sokolov, A. J. Levitt, and R T. Joffe, “Thyroid Hormone Levels before Unsuccessful Antidepressant Therapy Are Associated with Later Response to T3 Augmentation,” Psycblatry Research 69 (1997): 203-6.
  11. W. N. Henley and T. J, Koehnle, “Thyroid Hormones and the Treatment of Depression: An Examination of Basic Hormonal Actions in the Mature Mammalian Brain, Synapse 27 (1997): 36-44.
  12. R. T. Joffe, W. Singer, A. J. Levitt, et al., “A Placebo-Controlled. Comparison of Lithium and Triiodothyronine Augmentation of Tricyclic Antidepressants in Unipolar Refractory Depression,” Archives of General Psychiatry 50 (1993): 387-93.
  13. S. Gupta, P. Masand, and J. F. Tanquary, “Thyroid Hormone Supplementation of Fluoxetine in the Treatment of Major Depression,” British Journal of Psychlatry 159 (1991): 866-7.
  14. E. E. Feldmesser-Reiss, “The Application of Trliodothyronine in the Treatment of Mental Disorders,” Jourual of Nervous and Mental Dlsease 127 (1958): 540-46.
  15. A. Campos-Barros, A. Musa, A. Flechner, et al., “Evidence for Circadian Variations of Thyroid Hormone Concentrations and Type II 5 ‘-Iodothyronine Deiodinase Activity in the Rat Central Nervous System,” Journal of Neurochemistry 68 (1997): 795-803.
  16. E. Souetre, E. Salvati, T. A. Wher, et al., “Twenty-four-Hour Profiles of Body Temperature and Plasma TSH in Bipolar Patients during Depression and during Remission and in Normal Control Subjects,” Americau Jourual of Psychiatry 145, no. 9 (1988): I133-37.
  17. N. Konno and K. Morikawa, “Seasonal Variation of Serum Thyrotropin Concentration and Thyrotropin Response to Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone in Patients with Primary Hypothyroidism on Constant Replacement Dosage of Thyroxine,” Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 54 (1982): 1118-24.
  18. M. S. Bauer and P. C. Whybrow, “Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Affective Disorder,” part 2 , “Treatment of Refractory Rapid Cycling with High-Dose Levothyroxine: A Preliminary Study,” Archives of General Psychiatry 47 (1990): 435-40.
  19. L. Gyulai, J. Jaggi, M. S. Bauer, et al., “Bone Mineral Density and L-Thyroxine Treatment in Rapidly Cycling Bipolar Disorder,” Biological Psychiatry 41 (1997): 503-6.
  20. G. S. Kurland, M. W. Hamolsky, atid A. S. Freedberg, “Studies in Non-myxedematous Hypometabolism,” Jourual of Clinical Endo(rinology 15 (1955): 1354-66.
  21. B. O. Bames and L. Galton, Hypothyroidism: The Unsuspected Illness (New York: Harper and Row, 1976).
  22. B. Bames, “Basal Temperature versus Basal Metabolism,” Jourual of the American Medical Association 119 (1942): 1072-74.
  23. E. D. Wilson, Wilson’s Syndrome: The Miracle of Feeling Well (Orlando, Fla.: Cornerstone Publishing, 1991).
参考文献《第7章》
  1. R. J. Kuczmarski, K. M. Flegal, S. M. Campbdl, et ai., “Increasing Prevalence of Overweight among U.S. Adults: The National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, 1960-1991,” Journal of the American Medical Association 272 no. 3 (1994): 205-11.
  2. J. E. Morley, “Neuropeptide Regulation of Appetite and Weight,” Endocrine Reviews 8, no. 3 (1987): 256-87.
  3. J. E. Mitchell, D. E. Laine, J. E. Morley, et al., “Naloxone but Not CCK-8 Attenuates Binge-Eating in Patients with Bulimia Syndrome,” Biological Psychiatry 21 (1986): 1399-1406.
  4. S. F. Leibowitz and G. Shor-Posner, “Brain Serotonin and Eating Behavior,” Appetite 7, suppl. (1986): 1-14.
  5. C. Hart, Secrets of Serotonin (New York: St. Martin’s Paperbacks, 1996).
  6. G. A. Bray, D. H. Ryan, D. Gordon, et al., “A Double-Blind Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial of Sibutramine,” Obesity Research 4 (1996): 263-70.
  7. C. Hart Secrets ofSerotonin, 24.
  8. S. R. Gambert, T. L. Garthwaite, C. M. Pontzer, et al., “Thyroid Hormone Regulation of Central Nervous System (CNS) Beta-Endorphin and ACTH,” Hormone Metabolic Research 12 (1980): 345-46.
  9. S. Z. Donhoffer and J. Vonotzky, “The Effect of Thyroxine on Food Intake and Selection,” American Journal of Physiology 150 (1947): 334-39.
  10. Z. Orban S. R. Bornstein, and G. P. Chrousos, “The Interaction between Leptin and the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid Axis, ” Hormone Metabolic Research 30 (1998) : 231-35.
  11. J. N. Loeb,”Metabolic Changes in Hypothyroidism,” in Werner atrd Ingbar’s The Thyroid, 6th ed., edited by Lewis E. Braverman and R. D. Utiger, 1064-71. (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1991).
  12. S. I. Sherman, P. Nadkarni, and R. Arem, “Outcomes of a Community TSH Screening Program” (abstract presented at the Seventy-ninth Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Minneapolis, June 11,1997).
  13. D. Cooper, R. Halpern, L. Wood, et al., “L-Thyroxine Therapy in Subclinical Hypothyroidism,” Annals of Internal Medicine 101 (1984): 18-24.
  14. G. N. Burrow, J. K. Oppenheimer, and R. Volpe, “Graves’ Disease,” in Thyroid Function and Disease. edited by Robert Volpe, 214-60 (Philadelphia: Saunders, 1990).
  15. S. Jansson, G. Berg, G. Lindstedt, et al.,”0verweight: A Common Problem among Women Treated for Hyperthyroidism,” Postgraduate Medical Journal 69 (1993) : 107-11.
  16. F. Celsing, S. H. Westing, U. Adamson, et al., “Muscle Strength in Hyperthyroid Patients before and after Medical Treatment,” Clinical Physiology 10 (1990): 545-50.
  17. U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, “Nutrition and Your Health: Dietary Guidelines for Americans” (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995).
参考文献《第8章》
  1. B. J. Kumar, M. L. Khurana, A. C. Ammini, et al., “Reproductive Endocrine Functions in Men with Primary Hypothyroidism: Effect of Thyroxine Replacement,” Hormone Research 34 (1990): 215-18.
  2. R. W. Hudson and A. L. Edwards, “Testicular Function in Hyperthyroidism,” Journal of Andrology 13 (1992): 117-4.
  3. C. Longcope, “The Male and Female Reproductive Systems in Hypothyroidism,” in Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid. 6th ed., edited by L. D. Braverman and R. D. Utiger, 1052-55 (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1991).
  4. C. Longcope, “The Male and Female Reproductive Systems in Thyrotoxicosis,” in Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid. 6th ed., edited by L. D. Braverman and R. D. Utiger, 828-55.
  5. W. F. Bergfeld, “Androgenetic Alopecia: An Overview, ” Seventh Symposium on Alopecia, in Dermatology, Capsule and Comment. edited by H. P. Badin, 1-10 (New York: HP Publishing, 1988).
  6. J. Lever and P. Schwartz, “When Sex Hurts: Finding the Causes of Your Pain during Intercourse,” Sexual Health 1(1997): 64-66.
  7. A. J. Wright, “Lichen Sclerosus and Thyroid Disease,” Ietter to the Journal of Reproductive Medicine 43 (1998): 240.
  8. C. Penner and J. Penner, The Gift of Sex: A Guide to Sexual Fulfillment (Waco, Tex.: Word Publishing, 1981).
  9. B. B. Sherwin, “Affective Changes with Estrogen and Androgen Replacement Therapy in Surgically Menopausal Women,” Journal of Affective Disorders 14 (1988): 177-87.
参考文献《第9章》
  1. J. Gray, Mefe Are from Mars. Women Are from Venus (New York: HarperCollins, 1992)
  2. P. H. Rockey and R. J. Griep, “Behavioral Dysfunction in Hyperthyroidism,” Archives of Internal Medicine 140 (1980): 1194-97.
参考文献《第11章》
  1. R. Arem and D. Escalante, Subclinicai Hypothyroidism: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Significance, Advafeces in Internal Medicine 41 (1996): 213-50.
  2. D. I. W. Phillips, J. H. Lazarus, and B. R. Budano, The Influence of Pregnancy and Reproductive Span on the Occurrence of Autoimmune Thyroiditis, Clinical Endocrinology 32 (1990): 301-6.
  3. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. 4th ed. (Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
  4. Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Complete Home Guide to Mental Health , eds. F. I. Kass et al. (New York: Henry Holt, 1995).
  5. P. J. Schmidt, G. N. Grover, P. P. Roy-Byrne, et al., Thyroid Function in Women with Premenstrual Syndrome, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 76 (1993): 671-74.
  6. N. D. Brayshaw and D. D. Brayshaw, Thyroid Hypofunction in Premenstrual Syndrome, The New England Journal of Medicine 315 (1986): 1486-87.
  7. P. J. Schmidt, D. Rosen」eld, K. L. Muller, et al., A Case of Autoimmune Thyroiditis Presenting as Menstrual Related Mood Disorder, Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 51 (1990): 434-36.
  8. A. Kadri, Attitudes to HRT, Practitioner 234 (1990): 880-84.
  9. C. Northrup, Women’s Bodies. Women’s Wisdom (New York: Bantam Books, 1994).
  10. N. E. Avis, P. A. Kaufert, M. Lock, et al., The Evolution of Menopausal Symptoms, Balliere’s Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 7 (1993): 17-32.
  11. D. J. Cooke and J. G. Green, Types of Life Events in Relation to Symptoms at the Climacterium, Journal of Psychosomatic Research 25 (1981): 5-11.
  12. A. Holte and A. Mikkelson, Psychosocial Determinants of Menopausal Complaints, Maturitas 13 (1991): 193-203.
  13. M. S. Hunter, The SE England Longitudinal Study of the Climacteric and Postmenopause, Maturitas 14, no. 2 (1992): 117-26.
  14. P. A. Kaufert, P. Gilbert, and R. Tate, The Manitoba Project: A Reexamination of the Link between Menopause and Depression, Maturitas 14, no. 2 (1992): 143-56.
参考文献《第12章》
  1. L. P. Salzer, Surviving Infertility (New York: Harper Perennial, 1991).
  2. E. Erickson, Childhood and Society (New York: Norton, 1950).
  3. I. Gerhard, T. Becker, W. Eggert-Kruse, et al., Thyroid and Ovarian Function in Infertile Women, Human Reproduction 6 (1991): 338-45.
  4. I. Gerhard, W. Eggert-Kruse, K. Merzoug, et al., Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) and Metoclopramide Testing in Infertile Women, Gynecological Endocrinology 5, no. I (1991): 15-32.
  5. T. Maruo, K. Katayama, H. Matuso, et al., Maintaining Early Pregnancy in Threatened Abortion, Acta Endocrinologica 127 (1992): 118-22.
  6. A. Singh, Z. N. Dantas, S. C. Stone, et al., Presence of Thyroid Antibodles in Early Reproductive Failure: Biochemical versus Clinical Pregnancies, Fertility and Sterility 63, no. 2 (1995): 277-81.
  7. D. Glinoer, The Regulation of Thyroid Function in Pregnancy: Pathways of Endocrine Adaptation from Physiology to Pathology, Endocrine Reviews 18, no. 3 (1997): 404-33.
  8. A. S. Leung, L. K. Millar, P. P. Koonings, et al., Perinatal Outcome in Hypothyroid Pregnancies, Obstetrics and Gynecology 81, no. 3 (1993): 349-53.
参考文献《第13章》
  1. Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, Complete Home Guide to Mental Health, ed. F. I. Kass et al. (New York: Henry Holt, 1995).
  2. J. E. D. Esquirol, Des maladles mentales considere’es sous les rapports medical. hygie’nique et medico-legal. vol. I (Paris: J. B. Bailliere, 1838).
  3. I. F. Brockington and R. Kumar, eds., Motherhood and Mental Illness (London: Academic Press, 1982).
  4. B. Harris, S. Othman, J. A. Davies, et al., Association between Postpartum Thyroid Dysfunction and Thyroid Antibodies and Depression, British Medical Journal 305, no. 6846 (1992): 152-56.
  5. V. J. M. Pop, H. A. M. deRooy, H. L. Vader, et al., Microsomal Antibodies during Gestation in Relation to Postpartum Thyroid Dysfunction and Depression, Acta Endocrinologica 129 (1993): 26-30.
  6. M. T. Vargas, R. Broines-Urbina, D. Gladman, et al., Antithryoid Microsomal Autoantibodies and HLA-DR5 Are Associated with Postpartum Thyroid Dysfunction: Evidence Supporting an Autoimmune Pathogenesis,” Journal of Clinical Endocrilrology and Metabolism 67 (1988): 327-33.
  7. J. A. Hamilton and P. N. Harberger, eds., Posrpartum Psychlatric Illness: A Picture Puzzle (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1992).
  8. W. M. Ord, Report of a Committee of the Clinical Society of London, Nominated December 14, 1883, to Investigate the Subject of Myxoedema, Transactions of the Clinical Society of London (suppl.) 21, no. 18 (1888).
  9. H. C. Gerstein, How Common Is Postpartum Thyroiditis? A Methodologic Overview of the Literature, Archives of Internal Medidne 150 (1990): 1397-1400.
  10. T. F. Nikolai, S. L. Turney, and R. C. Roberts, Postpartum Lymphocytic Thyroiditis: Prevalence, Clinical Course, and Long-Term Follow-up, Archives of Internal Medicine 147 (1987): 221-24.
  11. S. Othman, D. I. W. Phillips, A. B. Parkes, et al., A Long-Term Follow-up of Postpartum Thyroiditis, Clinical Endocrinology 32 (1990): 559-64.
  12. C. C. Hayslip, H. G. Fein, V. M. O’Donnell, et al., The Value of Serum Antimicrosomal Antibody Testing in Screening for Symptomatic Postpartum Thyroid Dysfunction, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 159 (1988): 203-9.
  13. D. E. Stewart, A. M. Addison, G. E. Robinson, et al., Thyroid Function in Psychosis following Childbirth, American Journal of Psychlatry 145, no. 12 (1988): 1579-81.
参考文献《第14章》
  1. D. S. Ross, G. H. Daniels, and D. Gouveia,  The Use and Limitations of a Chemiluminescent Thyrotropin Assay as a Single Thyroid Function Test in an Outpatient Endocrine Clinic, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 71, no. 3 (1990): 764-69.
  2. K. W. Geul, I. L. L. van Sluisveld, D. E. Grobbee, et al., The Importance of Thyroid Microsomal Antibodies in the Development of Elevated Serum TSH in Middle-Aged Women: Associations with Serum Lipids, Clinical Endocrinology 39 (1993): 275-80.
  3. G. Michalopoulou, M. Alevizaki, G. Piperingos, et al., High Serum Cholesterol Levels in Persons with High-Normal TSH Levels: Should One Extend the Definition of Subclinical Hypothyroidism? European Journal of Endocrinology 138, no. 2 (1998): 141-45.
  4. R. Arem and D. Escalante, Subclinical Hypothyroidlsm: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, and Significance, Advances in Internal Medicine 41 (1996): 213-50.
  5. J. G. Eales, lodine Metabolism and Thyroid-Related Functions in Organisms Lacking Thyroid Follicules: Are Thyroid Hormones Also Vitamins? Proceedings Society for Experimental Blology and Medicine 214 (1997): 302-17.
  6. G. R. B. Skinner, R. Thomas, M. Taylor, et al., Thyroxine Should Be Tried in Clinically Hypothyroid but Biochemicauy Euthyroid Patients, British Medical Journal 314 (1997): 1764.
  7. L. Wartofsky, The Scope and Impact of Thyroid Disease, Clinical Chemistry 42 (1996): 121-24.
  8. M-F. Poirier, H. Loo, A. Galinowski, et al., Sensitive Assay of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone in Depressed Patients, Psychlatry Research 57 (1995): 41-48.
  9. R. A. Dickey and H. W. Rodbard, American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Neck Check Promoted during Thyroid Awareness Month, First Messenger 5, no. I (1997): 1.
  10. S. Morita, T. Arima, and M. Matsuda, Prevalence of Nonthyroid Specific Autoantibodies in Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80, no. 4 (1995): 1203-6.
  11. B. Lindberg, U-B. Ericsson, R Ljung, et al., High Prevalence of Thyroid Autoantibodies at Diagnosis of Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus in Swedlsh Children, Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine 130 (1997): 585-89.
  12. J. Heward and S. C. L. Gough, Genetic Susceptibility to the Development of Autoimmune Disease, Clinical Science 93 (1997): 479-91.
  13. M. S. Rosenthal, The Thyroid Source Book: Everything You Need to Know 2d ed., (Los Angeles: Lowell House, 1996), 57.
  14. P. F. Peerboom, E. A. M. Hassink, R. Melkert, et al., Thyroid Function 10-18 Years after Mantle Field Irradlation for Hodgkin’s Disease, European Journal of Cancer 28A, no. 10 (1992): 1716-18.
  15. A. Leznoff and G. L. Sussman, Syndrome of Idiopathic Chronic Urticaria and Angioedema with Thyroid Autoimmunity: A Study of 90 Patients, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 84, no. I (1989): 66-71.
  16. L. C. Hotbauer, C. Spitzweg, S. Schmauss, et al., Graves’ Disease Associated with Autoimmune Thrombocytopenic Purpura, Archives of Internal Medicine 157 (1997): 1033-36.
  17. A. Pinchera, E. Martino, and G. Faglia, Central Hypothyroidism, in Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid, 6th ed., edited by Lewis E. Braverman and R. D. Utiger, 968-84 (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1991).
  18. M. Mori, Y. Shoda, M. Yamada, et al., Case Report: Central Hypothyroidism Due to Isolated TRH Deficiency in a Depressive Man, Journal of Iternal Medicine 229 (1991): 285-88.
参考文献《第15章》
  1. U. M. Kabadi, Optimal Daily Levothyroxine Dose in Primary Hypothyroidism: Its Relation to Pretreatment Thyroid Hormone Indexes, Archives of Internal Medicine 149 (1989): 2209-12.
  2. M. I. Surks, Treatment of Hypothyroidism, in Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid. 6th ed., edited by Lewis E. Braverman and R. D. Utiger, 1099-1103 (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1991).
  3. E. Roti, R. Minelli and E. Gardini, The Use and Misuse of Thyroid Hormone, Endocrine Reviews 14, no. 4 (1993): 401-23.
  4. P. C. Whybrow, Behavioral and Psychiatric Aspects of Hypothyroidism, in Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid. 1078-83.
  5. D. S. Ross, G. H. Daniels, and D. Gouvela, The Use and Limitations of a Chemiluminescent Thyrotropin Assay as a Single Thyroid Function Test in an Outpatient Endocrine Clinic, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 71, no. 3 (1990): 764-69.
  6. B. Biondi, S. Fazio, A. Cuocolo, et al., Impaired Cardiac Reserve and Exercise Capacity in Patients Receiving Long-Term Thyrotropin Suppressive Therapy with Levothyroxine, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81 (1996): 4224-28.
  7. B. Uzzan, J. Campos, M. Cucherat, et al., Effects on Bone Mass of Long-Term Treatment with Thyroid Hormones: A Meta-Analysis, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology aed Metabolism 81 (1996): 4278-89.
  8. B. Scholte, B. Nowotny, L. Schaaf, et al., Subclinical Hyperthyroidism: Physical and Mental State of Patients, European Archives of Psychiatry aeid Clinical Neuroscience 241(1992): 357-4.
  9. G. B. Anker, P. E. Lonning, A. Aakvaag, et al., Thyroid Function in Postmenopausal Breast Cancer Patients Treated with Tamoxifen, Scandinavian Journal of Clinical Laboratory Investigation 58 (1998): 103-7.
  10. E. Lesho and R E. Jones, “Hypothyroid Graves’ Disease, Southern Medical Journal 90, no 12(1997): 1201-3.
  11. N. Takasu, T. Yamada, A Sato, et al., Graves disease following Hypothyroidism Due to Hashimoto’s Disease: Studies of Eight Cases, Clinical Endocrinology 33 (1990): 687-89.
  12. R. Comtois, L. Faucher, and L. Lafleche, Outcome of Hypothyroidism Caused by Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis, Archives of lnternal Medicine 155 (1995): 1404-8.
  13. A. H. Saliby, C. Larosa, R. Rachid, et al., Changes in Levothyroxine Dose Requirements in the Follow-up of Patients with Primary Hypothyroidism (abstract presented at the Sixty-ninth Annual Meeting of the American Thyroid Association, November 13, 1996).
  14. R. Arem, When to Choose Radioactive lodine, Drugs, or Surgery, Consultant 28, no. 9 (January 1989): 21-35.
  15. J. A. Franklyn, The Management of Hyperthyroidism, New Efegland Journal of Medicine 330, no. 24 (1994): 1731-38.
  16. N. L. Gittoes and J. A. Franklyn, Hyperthyroidism: Current Treatment Guidelines, Drugs 55, no. 4 (1998): 543-53.
  17. J. M. H. Deklerk, J. W. Van Isselt, A. Van Dijk, et al., lodine-131 Therapy in Sporadic Nontoxic Goiter, Journal of Nuclear Medicine 38, no. 3 (1997): 372-76.
  18. R. E. Imseis, L. Vanmiddlesworth, J. D. Massie, et al., Pretreatment with Propylthiouracil but Not Methimazole Reduces the Therapeutic Efficacy of lodine- 131 in Hyperthyroidism, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83 , no. 2 (1998): 685-87.
  19. R. A. Hegele and R. Volpe, Relapse of Graves’ Disease 23 Years after Treatment with Radioactive lodine (131-I), Journal of Clinical alid Laboratory Immunology 18 (1985): 103-5.
  20. J. A. Franklyn, P. Maisonneuve, M. C. Sheppard, et al., Mortality after the Treatment of Hyperthyroidism with Radioactive lodine, New Englaud Journal ofMedicine 338, no. 11 (1998): 712-18.
  21. L. E. Holrn, P. Hall, K. Wiklund, et al., Cancer Risk after lodine-131 Therapy for Hyperthyroidism, Journal of the National Cancer Institute 83 (1991): 1072-77.
  22. S. T. Tietgens and M. C. Leinung, Thyroid Storm, Medical Clinics of North America 79, no. I (1995): 169-84.
  23. M. T. Gladwin and P. B. Duell, Inappropriate Thyroid Gland Ablation in Patients with Generalized Resistance to Thyroid Hormone, Archives of Internal Medicine 156, no. 8 (1996): 106-9.
  24. M. A. Emanuele, M. H. Brooks, D. L. Gordon, et al., Agoraphobia and Hyperthyroidism, American Journal of Medicine 86 (1989): 484-86.
  25. S. Benvenga, Benzodiazepine and Remission of Graves’ Disease, Thyroid 6, no. 6 (1996): 659-60.
  26. J. H. Lazarus, Antithyroid Drug Treatment, Clinical Endocrinology 45 (1996): 517-18.
  27. A. Toft, Transient Hypothyroidism, Clinical Endocrinology 46 (1997): 7-8.
  28. D. Glinoer, The Regulation of Thyroid Function in Pregnancy: Pathways of Endocrine Adaptation from Physiology to Pathology, Endocrine Reviews 18, no. 3 (1997): 404-33.
  29. T. Maruo, K. Katayama, H. Matuso, et al., Maintaining Early Pregnancy in Threatened Abortion, Acta Endocrilrologica 127 (1992): 118-22.
  30. E. Roti, S. Mindli, and M. Salvi, Management of Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism in the Pregnant Woman, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81, no. 5 (1996): 1679-82.
参考文献《第16章》
  1. H. Leigh, Cerebral Effects of Endocrine Disease, in Principles and Practice of Eedocriology aed Metabolism, 2d ed., edited by K. L. Becker et al. (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1995), 1695.
  2. P. C. Whybrow, Behavioral and Psychiatric Aspects of Hypothyroidism, in Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid. 6th ed., edited by Lewis E. Braverman and R. D. Utiger, 1078-83 (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1991).
  3. R. A. Stern, B. Robinson, A. R. Thorner, et al., A Survey Study of Neuropsychiatric Complaints in Patients with Graves’ Disease, Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neuroscieaces 8 (1996): 181-85.
  4. M. Bommer, T. Eversmann, R. Pickardt, et al., Psychopathological and Neuropsychological Symptoms in Patients with Subclinical and Remitted Hyperthyroidism, Klinische Wochenschrift 68 (1990): 552-58.
  5. P. Thygesen, K. Hermann, and R. Willanger, Concentration Camp in Denmark: Persecution, Disease, Disability, Compensation. A 23-Year Follow-Up. A Survey of the Long-Term Effect of Severe Environmental Stress, Danish Medical Bulletin 17 (1970): 65-108.
  6. S. A. Green, Offlce Psychotherapy for Depression in the Primary Care Setting, The American Journal of Medicine 101, no. 6A, suppl. (1996): 37-44.
  7. I. Elkin, M. Shea, J. Warkins, et al., National Institute of Mental Health Treatment of Depression: Collaborative Research Program: General Effectiveness of Treatments,” Archives of General Psychiatry 46 (1989): 971-83.
  8. M. Mennemeier, R. D. Garner, and K. M. Heilman, Memory, Mood, and Measurement in Hypothyroidism, Journal of Clinial and Experimental Neuropsychology 15, no. 5 (1993): 822-31.
  9. H. Perrild, J. M. Hansen, K. Arnung, et al., Intellectual Impairment after Hyperthyroidism, Acta Endocrilrologica 112 (1986): 185-91.
  10. L. S. Chia, J. E. Thompson, and M. A. Moscarello, Changes in Lipid Phase Behaviour in Human Myelin during Maturation and Aging, Ietter to Federetion of European Blochemical Socleties 157 (1983): 155-58.
  11. J. M. Pasquini and A. M. Adamo, Thyroid Hormones and the Central Nervous System, Developmental Neuroscience 16 (1994): 1-8.
  12. L. A. Videla, T. Sir, and C. Wolff, Increased Lipid Peroxidation in Hyperthyroid Patients: Suppression by Propylthiouracil Treatment, Free Radical Research Communications 5 (1988): 1-8.
  13. J. Bernal and J. Nunez, Thyroid Hormones and Brain Development, European Journal of Endocrinology 133 (1995): 390-98.
  14. I. Skoog, L. Nilsson, B. Palmertz, et al., A Population-Based Study of Dementia in 85-Year-Olds, New England Journal of Medicine 328 (1993): 153-58.
  15. J. S. Meyer, B. W. Judd, T. Tawakina, et al., Improved Cognition after Control of Risk Factors for Multi-Infarct Dementia, Journal of the Amerlcan Medical Association 256 (1986): 2203-9.
  16. N. Pancharuniti, C. A. Lewish, H. E. Sauberlich, et al., Plasma Homocysteine, Folate, and Vitamin B12 Concentrations and Risk for Early Onset Coronary Artery Disease, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59 (1994): 940-48.
  17. P. A. Bastenie, L. Van Haelst, M. Bonnyns, et al., Preclinical Hypothyroidism: A Risk Factor for Coronary Heart Disease,” Lancet I (1971): 203-4.
  18. M. Singh, E. M. Meyer, W. J. Miuard, et al., Ovarian Steroid Deprivation Results in a Reversible Learning Impairment and Compromised Cholinergic Function in Female Sprague-Dawley Rats, Brain Research 644 (1994): 305-12.
  19. L. S. Schneider, M. R. Farlow, V. W. Henderson, et al., Effects of Estrogen Replacement Therapy on Response to Tacrine in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease, Neurology 46 (1996): 1580-84.
  20. B. B. Sherwin, Estrogen and/or Androgen Replacement Therapy and Cognitive Functioning in Surgically Menopausal Women, Psychoneuroendocrinology 13 (1988): 345-57.
  21. S. R. Lindheim, R. S. Legro, L. Bernstein, et al., Behavioral Stress Responses in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women and the Effects of Estrogen, American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 167 (1992): 1831-36.
  22. B. B. Sherwin, Affective Changes with Estrogen and Androgen Replacement Therapy in Surgically Menopausal Women, Journal of Affective Disorders 14 (1988): 177-87.
  23. M. M. Rice, A. B. Graves, and E. B. Larson, Estrogen Replacement Therapy and Cognition: Role of Phytoestrogens, abstract, Gerontologist 35, special issue 1 (1995): 169.
  24. M. Holzbauer and M. B. Youdim, The Oestrous Cycle and Monoamine Oxidase Activity, British Journal of Pharmacology 48 (1973): 600-8.
参考文献《第17章》
  1. M. I. Surks, Treatment of Hypothyroidism, in Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid. 6th ed., edited by Lewis E. Braverman and R. D. Utiger, 1099-1103 (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1991).
  2. R. W. Rees-Jones and P. R. Larsen, Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine Content of Desiccated Thyroid Tablets, Metabolism 26 (1977): 1213-18.
  3. S. C. Kaufman, G. P. Gross, and G. L. Kennedy, Thyroid Hormone Use: Trends in the United States from 1960 through 1988, Thyroid 1 (1991): 285-91.
  4. J. C. Lowe, R. L. Garrison, A. Reichman, et al., Triiodothyronine (T3) Treatment of Euthyroid Fibromyalgia: A Small-N Replication of a Double-Blnld Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study, Clinical Bulletin of Myofascial Therapy 2, no. 4 (1997): 71-88.
  5. J. C. Lowe, Results of an Open Trial of T3 Therapy with 77 Euthyroid Female Fibromyalgia Patients, Clinical Bulletin of Myofascial Therapy 2, no. I (1997): 35-37.
参考文献《第18章》
  1. W. J. W. Morrow, J. Homsy, and J. A. Levy, The Influence of Nutrition on Experimental Autoimmune Disease, in Nutrient Modulation of the Immune Response. edited by S. Cunningham-Rundles, 153-67 (New York: Dekker, 1993).
  2. H. L. Steward, M. C. Bethea, S. S. Andrews, et al., Sugar Busters!; Cut Sugar to Trim Fat (New York: Ballantine Books, 1998).
  3. R. Lozano, S. A. Chalew, A. A. Kowarski, Cornstarch Ingestion after Oral Glucose Loading: Effect on Glucose Concentrations, Hormone Response, and Symptoms in Patients with Postprandial Hypoglycemic Syndrome, American Journal of Clileical Nutriton 52 (1990): 667-70.
  4. V. E. Kelley, A. Ferretti, S. Izui, et al., A Fish Oil Diet Rich in Eicosapentaenoic Acid Reduces Cyclooxygenase Metabolites and Suppresses Lupus in MRL/1pr Mice, Journal of lmmunology 134 (1985): 1914-19.
  5. S. Iossa, M. P. Mollica, L. Lionetti, et al., Effect of a High-Fat Diet on Energy Balance and Thermic Effect of Food in Hypothyroid Rats, European Journal of Endocrinology 136 (1997): 309-15.
  6. M. J. Mtiller, Thyroid Hormones and Energy and Fat Balance, European Journal of Endocrinology 136 (1997): 267-68.
  7. V. Kamat, W. L. Hecht, and R. T. Rubin, Influence of Meal Composition on the Postprandial Response of the Pituitary-Thyroid Axis, European Journal of Endocrinology 133 (1995): 75-79.
  8. B. D’Avanzo, E. Ron, C. La Vecchia, et al., Selected Micronutrient Intake and Thyroid Carcinoma Risk, Cancer 79 (1997): 2186-92.
  9. B. Contempre, J. E. Dumont, J. F. Denef, et al., Effects of Selenium Deficiency on Thyroid Necrosis, Fibrosis, and Proliferation: A Possible Role in Myxoedematous Cretinism, European Journal of Endocrinology 133 (1995): 99-109.
  10. G. M. Reid and H. Tervit, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome and Placental Disorders: The Thyroid-Selenium Link, Medical Hypotheses 48 (1997): 317-24.
  11. R. B. Gillie, Endemic Goitre, Scientlfic American 22 (1978): 213-19.
  12. F. Licastro, E. Mocchenegiani, M. Zannotti, et al., Zinc Affects the Metabolism of Thyroid Hormones in Children with Down’s Syndrome: Normalisation of Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone and of Reverse Triiodothyronine Plasmic Levels by Dietary Zinc Supplementation, International Journal of Neuroscience 65 (1992): 259-68.
  13. R P. Gupta, P. C. Verma, and S. L. Garg, Effect of Experimental Zinc Deficiency on Thyroid Gland in Guinea Pigs, Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 41 (1997): 376-81.
  14. G. Di Martino, M. G. Matera, B. De Martino, et al., Relationship between Zinc and Obesity, Journal of Medicine 24 (1993): 177-83.
  15. O. Olivieri, D. Girelli, M. Azzini, et al., Low Selenium Status in the Elderly Influences Thyroid Hormones, Clinical Science 89 (1995): 637-42.
  16. J. F. Bach, The Multi-Faceted Zinc Dependency of the Immune System, Immulrology Today 2 (1981): 225-27.
  17. M. J. Berry and P. R. Larsen, The Role of Selenium in Thyroid Hormone Action, Endocrine Reviews 13 (1992): 207-19.
  18. K. Asayama and K. Kato, Oxidative Muscular Injury and Its Relevance to Hyperthyroidism, Free Radical Biology and Medicine 8 (1990): 293-303.
  19. M. D. Edden and M. S. Torre, Physician’s Guide to Herbs, Practical Diabetology 16, no. I (1997): 10-20.
  20. M. Auf’mkolk, J. C. Ingbar, K. Kubota, et al., Extracts and Auto-Oxidized Constituents of Certain Plants Inhibit the Receptor-Binding and the Biological Activity of Graves’ Immunoglobulins, Endocrinology 116, no. 5 (1985): 1687-93.
  21. J. G. Eales, lodine Metabolism and Thyroid-Related Functions in Organisms Lacking Thyroid Follicles: Are Thyroid Hormones Also Vitamins?, Proceedings Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine 214 (1997) : 302-17.
  22. N. R Rose, A. M. Saboori, L. Rasooly, et al., The Role of lodine in Autoimmune Thyroiditis, Clinical Reviews in Immunology 17 (1997): 511-17.
  23. H. R. Harach and E. D. Williams, Thyroid Cancer and Thyroiditis in the Goitrous Region of Salta, Argentina, before and after lodine Prophylaxis, Clinical Endocrinology 43 (1995): 701-6.
  24. J. Kabat-Zinn, Full Catastrophe Living; Using the Wisdom of Your Body and Mind to Face Stress, Pain. and Illness (New York: Dell, 1990).
  25. D. R. Brown, Y. Wang, A. Ward, et al., Chronic Psychological Effects of Exercise and Exercise Plus Cognitive Strategies, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 27, no. 5 (1995): 765-75.
  26. C. C. Chow and C. S. Cockram, Thyroid Disorders Induced by Lithium and Amiodarone: An Overview, Adverse Drug Reactions and Acute Poisoning Reviews 9, no. 4 (1990): 207-22.
  27. K. C. McCowen, J. R. Garber, and R. Spark, Elevated Serum Thyrotropin in Thyroxine-Treated Patients with Hypothyroidism Given Sertraline, Ietter to New England Journal of Medicine 337, no. 14 (1997): 1010-11.
  28. R. D. Utiger, Effects of Smoking on Thyroid Function, European Journal of Endocrinology 138 (1998): 368-69.
  29. G. D. Braunstein, R. Koblin, M. Sugawara, et al., Unintentional Thyrotoxicosis Factitia Due to a Diet Pill, Western Journal of Medicine 145 (1986): 388-91.
  30. F. Ohno and K. Miyoshi, Clinical Observations on Thyreoidismus Medicamentosus Due to Weight-Reducing Pills in Japan, Endocrinologica Japonica 18 (1971): 321-23.
参考文献《第19章》
  1. C. A. Gorman, R. S. Bahn, and J. A. Garrity, Ophthalmopathy, in Werner and Ingbar’s The Thyroid. 6th ed., edited by L. E. Braverman and R. D. Utiger, 657-76 (Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1991).
  2. B. J. Major, B. E. Busuttil, and A. G. Frauman, Graves’ Ophthalmopathy: Pathogenesis and Clinical Implications, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine 28 (1998): 39-45.
  3. D. L. Kendler, J. Lippa, and J. Rootman, The Initial Clinical Characteristics of Graves’ Orbitopathy Vary with Age and Sex, Archives of Ophthalmology 111 (1993): 197-201.
  4. L. Tallstedt, G. Lundell, O. Torring, et al., Occurrence of Ophthalmopathy after Treatment of Graves’ Hyperthyroidism, New England Journal of Medicine 326 (1992): 1733-38.
  5. B. Bush, Barbara Bush; A Memoir (New York: St. Martin’s Paperbacks 1994).
  6. P. Perros, A. L. Cromble, P. Kendall-Taylor,  Natural History of Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy, Clinical Eledocrinology 42 (1995): 45-50.
  7. R. S. Bahn,  Assessment and Management of the Patient with Graves’ Ophthalmopathy,” Endocrine Practice 1, no. 3 (1995): 172-78.
  8. I. B. Hales and F. F. Rundle, Ocular Changes in Graves’ Disease: A Long-Term Follow-up Study,” Quarterly Journal of Medicine 29 (1960): 113-26.
  9. G. B. Bartley, V. Fatourechi, E. F. Kadrmas, et al., The Treatment of Graves’ Ophthalmopathy in an Incidence Cohort, American Journal of Ophthalmology 121 (1996): 200-206.
  10. I. A. Petersen, J. P. Kriss, I. R. McDougall, et al., Prognostic Factors in the Radiotherapy of Graves’ Ophthalmopathy, Internatlo/eal Journal of Radlation Oncology/Biology/Physics 19 (1990): 259-64.
  11. M. F. Prummel, W. M. Wiersinga, M. Mourits, et al., Effect of Abnormal Thyroid Function on the Severity of Graves’ Ophthalmopathy, Archives of Internal Medicine 150 (1990): 1098-1101.
  12. L. Bartalena, C. Marocci, F. Bogazzi, et al., Use of Corticosteroids to Prevent Progression of Graves’ Ophthalmopathy after Radioiodine Therapy for Hyperthyroidism, New England Journal of Medicine 321 (1989): 1349-52.
  13. N. Sonino, M. E. Girelli, M. Boscaro, et al., Life Events in the Pathogenesis of Graves’ Disease, Acta Endocrinologica 128 (1993): 293-96.
  14. B. Shine, P. Fells, O. M. Edwards, et al., Association between Graves’ Ophthalmopathy and Smoking, Lancet 335 (1990): 1261-63.
参考文献《第20章》
  1. T. Zheng, T. R. Holford, Y. Chen, et al., Time Trend and Age-Period-Cohort Effect on Incidence of Thyroid Cancer in Connecticut, 1935-1992, International Journal of Cancer 67 (1996): 504-9.
  2. B. L. Solomon, L. Wartofsky, and K. D. Burman, Current Trends in the Management of Well-Differentiated Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 81 (1996): 333-39.
  3. R. L. Rossi, B. Cady, and M. L. Silverman, Surgically Incurable Well-Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma: Prognostic Factors and Results of Therapy, Archives of Surgery 123 (1988): 569-74.
  4. D. Zimmerman, I. D. Hay, and I. R. Gough, Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma in Children and Adults: Long-Term Follow-up of I039 Patients Conservatively Treated at One Institution during Three Decades, Surgery 104 (1988): 1157-66.
  5. A. Schindler, G. Van Melle, B. Evequoz, et al., Prognostic Factors in Papillary Carcinoma of the Thyroid, Cancer 68 (1991): 324-30.
  6. D. P. Aiello and A. Manni, Thyroglobulin Measurements vs. Iodine 131-I Total-Body Scan for Follow-up of Well-Differehtiated Thyroid Cancer, Archives of Internal Medicine 150 (1990): 437-39.
  7. A. Brander, P. Viikinkoski, J. Nickels, et al., Thyroid Gland: U.S. Screening in a Random Adult Population, Radiology 181 (1991): 683-87.
  8. F. S. Greenspan, The Role of Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy in the Management of Palpable Thyroid Nodules, Pathology Patterns 108, no. 4, suppl. (1997): S26-S30.
  9. M. Boignon and D. Moyer, Solitary Thyroid Nodules: Separating Benign from Malignant Conditions, Postgraduate Medicine 98, no. 2 (1995): 73-80.
  10. R. M. Tuttle, H. Lemar, and H. B. Burch, Clinical Features Associated with an Increased Risk of Thyroid Malignancy in Patients with Follicular Neoplasia by FineNeedle Aspiration, Thyroid 8, no. 5 (1998): 377-83.
  11. E. Papini, L. Petrucci, R. Guglielmi, et al., Long-Term Changes in Nodular Goiter: A 5-Year Prospective Randomized Trial of Levothyroxine Suppressive Therapy for Benign Cold Thyroid Nodules, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83 (1998): 780-83.
  12. A. E. Schwartz, O. H. Clark, P. Ituarte, et al., Therapeutic Controversy: Thyroid Surgery-The Choice, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 83 , no. 4 (1998): 1097-1105.
  13. L. A. Burmeister, R. P. du Cret, and C. N. Mariash, Local Reactions to Radioiodine in the Treatment of Thyroid Cancer, American Journal of Medicine 90 (1991): 217-22.
  14. P. W. Ladenson, L. E. Braverman, E. L. Mazzaferri, et al., Comparison of Administration of Recombinant Human Thyrotropin with Withdrawal of Thyroid Hormone for Radioactive lodine Scanning in Patients with Thyroid Carcinoma, New England Journal of Medicine 337, no. 13 (1997): 888-96.
  15. J. D. Pineda, T. Lee, K. Ain, et al., lodine-131 Therapy for Thyroid Cancer Patients with Elevated Thyroglobulin and Negative Diagnostic Scan, Journ:al of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 80 (1995): 1488-92.
  16. P. Hall, L. E. Holm, G. Lundell, et al., Cancer Risks in Thyroid Cancer Patients, British Journal of Cancer 64 (1991): 159-63.
参考文献《第21章》
  1. S. I. Sherman, P. Nadkarni, and R. Arem, Outcomes of a Community TSH Screening Program (abstract presented at the Seventy-ninth Annual Meeting of the Endocrine Society, Minneapolis, June 11, 1997).
  2. M. D. Danese, N. R. Powe, C. T. Sawin, et al., Screening for Mild Thyroid Failure at the Periodic Health Examination: A Decision and Cost-Effectiveness Analysis, Journal of the American Medical Association 276 (1996): 285-92.
  3. L. H. Fish, The Role of the Endocrinologist in Patient Care: Indications for Specialty Consultations and Management, Endocrine News 20, no. 2 (1995): 3.
  4. L. Wartofsky, The Scope and Impact of Thyroid Disease, Clinical Chemistry 42 (1996): 121-24.

書籍の翻訳

Web診察予約サービス
http://j-tajiri.atat.jp/
予約電話番号
096-385-5430
甲状腺ニュース
PAGETOP
Copyright © TAJIRI CLINIC. All Rights Reserved.